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Easy way to remember NEBOSH IGC-1 (part-02)

Advantages of Benchmarking:
Identifies key performance indicators.
Ensures monitoring procedures are effective.
Identifies strengths and weaknesses.
Helps by learning lessons from others.

When Benchmarking it is essential to:
Choose a suitable similar organisation to benchmark.
Ensure accuracy of data used.
Both organisations use common definitions.
Accessing data.
Commitment to the process.

Issues that could be used to benchmark
Existence and quality of health and safety policy.
Accident and near miss records.
Staff roles and responsibilities.
Documentation of health and safety plans.
The quality of risk assessments.
Type and quality of training provided.
Level of monitoring i.e. proactive and reactive.

Ineffective Health and Safety Policies
No commitment or leadership.
No annual objectives.
Health and safety not given enough priority.
Insufficient resources provided.
Personnel do not understand the aims.
Too much emphasis on employee responsibility.
No measurement of performance.
Management unaware of their role.
No training of management in their responsibilities.

Employer’s responsibilities towards Employees
Provide safe plant and equipment.
Information, instruction and training.
Safe place of work, access and egress.
Safe environment and welfare facilities.
Safety policy.
Consult and inform employees.
Risk assessments.
Effective health and safety management.
Competent health and safety assistance.
Health surveillance.

Non-employees include:
General public.
Other employer’s employees.

Precautions for visitor safety
Signing in.
Providing identification badges.
Providing personal protective equipment.
Site induction e.g. fire precautions.
Escorting visitor to area of work.
Remain with visitor back to reception area.
Signing out visitor and removing badge.

Duties of Employees:
Protect themselves and others from danger.
Co-operation with employer.
Not to interfere with anything provided for safety.
Follow instructions and training given.
Inform employer of dangers and problems with health and safety

Duties of controllers of premises
Provide safe premises.
Provide safe access and egress.
Provide safe plant and substances.

Duties of designers, manufacturers, suppliers and importers
Articles must be designed and constructed to be safe when being set,
used, cleaned, maintained.
Substances must be safe when being used, handled, processed, stored or
Carry out and arrange tests.
Provide revisions if necessary.
Installers and erectors must be competent.

Safety practitioners should have:
Knowledge and understanding of the work involved.
Understanding of principles of risk assessment.
Knowledge of current health and safety applications.
Capacity to apply to tasks required.
Ability to identify problems.
Ability to assess the need for action.
Ability to design and develop strategies.
Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies.
Promote and communicate health and safety.
Understand current best practice.
Awareness of own limitations.
Willingness to learn.
Membership of a professional body IIRSM IOSH.
Competence based qualification.

Role of the safety practitioner
Provide information and advice.
Support line management with co-ordination of health and safety effort.
Monitor effectiveness of actions.

Functions of the safety practitioner
Advise management.
Carry out inspections.
Investigate accidents.
Record and analyse accident data.
Assist with training.
Contact external bodies.
Liaison with the work force.
Keep up to date with new safety standards.
Liaison with contractors.

Safety practitioner dealing with external parties.
The enforcing authority. EHS
Fire and rescue service.
Insurance company.
Consultants and engineers.
Manufacturers and suppliers.
Clients and customers.
Specialist health practitioners.

Contractor Terms:
Client – The party for whom the work or project is being carried out.
Contractor – The person engaged by the client to undertake the work.
Principle contractor – A “managing contractor” who has been appointed
by a client (CDM reg)
Sub Contractor – Usually defined as a contractor who has been engaged
by another contractor rather than the client.

Management of contractors
Problems associated with contract work can include:
Unsuitable selection methods, poor planning and little agreement.
Lack of communication, monitoring and supervision.

Management strategy for contractors
Identification of suitable bidders.
Checking health and safety aspects of bids.
Contractors agree to clients rules.
Managing the contractors on site.
Identification of hazards related to job.
Checking contractor work.

Selection of a suitable contractor
Experience with type of work.
Suitable reference or recommendation.
Previous work record.
Adequacy of safety policy.
Enforcement history.
Accident and ill-health data.
Membership of trade organisations.
Suitable training for employees.
Arrangements for sub contractors.
Suitable risk assessments etc.

Managing of contractors on site
Appointment of coordinator.
Pre-contract meeting.
Progress meetings.
Regular inspections.
Safety committee.
Method statements.
Accident and incident reporting.
Client set example.
Safety propaganda.
Plant documentation.
Training competency.

Contractor’s comments
You talk safety but don’t always act it.
Often not given complete information on job until reporting for work on
the actual day.
Never given positive feedback.
We don’t feel part of the team.
We feel like second class citizens.

Reduction of the risks to Contractors before and during the building
Careful selection of suitable contractors.
Identification of hazards associated with the job.
Checking the health and safety aspects of the bids.
Establishing site rules.
Suitable risk assessments.
Suitable training for employees.
Method statements.
Appointment of co-coordinator.
Pre-contract meeting.
Progress meetings.
Regular inspections.
Safety committee.
Accident/incident reporting.
Clients sets an example.
Safety propaganda.
Monitor training program.

Functions of the Safety Representative
Investigate potential hazards and dangerous occurrences.
Investigate complaints from employees.
Make representations on general matters of health and safety to
Carry out workplace inspections.
Examine causes of accidents.
Consult with enforcement authorities.
Attend safety committee meetings.

Informing and consulting
Informing - is a one-way process and means of providing information to
Consulting – is a two way process which means listening to employee’s

Importance of consulting
Worker’s committees and representatives should:
Be given adequate information on health and safety matters.
Be consulted when major health and safety changes are envisaged.
Given protection from dismissal when carrying out duties as a
Be able to contribute to decision making process.
Be able to communicate with workers during working hours.
Be free to contact labour inspectors.
Be able to contribute to negotiations in the undertaking of health and
safety matters.
Have reasonable paid time to exercise their health and safety functions.
Have recourse to specialists for advise on particular health and safety

Matters on which employees are to be consulted
Introduction of measures that affect their health and safety.
1 New processes and technology.
2 New organisation of work patterns.
3 New personal protective equipment.
4 Planning and organisation of any training required.

Employer not expected to disclose
Information against national security.
Information on an individual.
Information not relating to health and safety.
Information that may damage business interests.
Information in connection with legal proceedings.

ILO Rights for safety representative’s convention C155
Have access to all parts of the workplace.
Protection from dismissal.
Contribute to decision making.
Freedom to contact inspectors.
Contribute to negotiations.
Be given appropriate training.
Reasonable time off with pay to exercise functions.

Safety committee
Object is to promote co-operation between employees and employer on
health and safety matters.
No set structure. Formation of a safety committee is between the
employer and worker’s union/volunteers.
Equal representation from management and safety representatives.

Safety committee – effective meetings
The agenda may include relevant items such as:
Study of statistics.
Examination of audit reports.
Analysis of inspector’s report.
Consideration of safety representative’s reports.
Development and monitoring of work safety rules and safe systems of work.
Appraisal of effectiveness of safety training.
Monitor adequacy of health and safety communication.
Establish a link with the appropriate inspectors.

Factors that influence the effectiveness of safety committee
Balanced representation.
Influence in decision making.
Respect of management.
Commitment from members.
Good leadership and chairmanship.
Good communication channels.
Access to information or specialist advice.
Formalised procedures with agendas.
Relevant (not trivial) agenda items.
Agenda not led by industrial relations.

Safety Culture – The product of individual and group values, attitudes,
competencies and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment to,
and proficiency of an organisation’s health and safety performance.

Internal influences on health and safety management standards:
Production demands – Too many resources directed to production and not enough to health and safety.
Management commitment.
Employee representation.

External influences on health and safety
Social expectations – society expects certain safe behavior.
Insurance companies.
Trade unions.

Indicators of a company’s health and safety culture:
Accident rates.
Staff turnover.
Compliance with legislation and internal policies.

Benefits of a positive safety culture:
Increased levels of compliance.
Improved production.
Improved staff morale.
Improved company reputation.
Reduced accidents.
Reduced ill health.
Reduced damage to equipment.
Reduced staff complaints.
Reduced staff turnover.
Reduced insurance premiums.

Factors that can cause a health and safety culture to decline:
Lack of communication.
Perception of a growing blame culture.
Lack of leadership and management commitment.
Lack of monitoring.
Failure to implement remedial action.
Lack of consultation and employee involvement.
Poor working environment.
External influences – unions.
Health and safety seen as a low priority.
Lack of supervision.
Reorganization and uncertainty.

Promoting a positive health and safety culture:
Senior management commitment.
Ownership of health and safety at all levels.
Effective consultation.
Effective communication.
Training for all levels of employees.
Shared perception of risks.
Standards of acceptable behavior.
Learning from experience through monitoring and review.
Balance between health and safety and production.

Why employees fail to comply with safety procedures even when competent:
Lack of motivation.
Unrealistic working procedures.
Lack of management commitment.
Over familiarization with the task.
Repetitive work leading to boredom.
Peer group pressure.
Willful disregard of laid down procedures.
Fatigue and stress.
Lack of information.
Job insecurity.

Violations – breaking the rules:
Routine – Becomes a normal way of working.
Desire to cut corners.
Rules perceived to be too restrictive.
Lack of supervision and enforcement.
New workers taught bad habits.

Situational – Breaking the rules due to pressure.
Time pressure.
Insufficient staff for the workload.
Correct equipment not available.
Extreme weather conditions.

Exceptional – Rare occurrences happen when something has gone wrong
and a decision is made to put things right, even if it means taking risks
that are known to be unsuitable or inappropriate.

Types of communication.
1) Written Communication:
Letters, memos, reports, notices, procedures etc.

Advantages                             Disadvantages
Permanent record.                   May be unread.
Reference.                               One way.
Consistent message.                Often no feedback.
Accurate detail.                       Time consuming.
Wide audience.                        Cost.
Authoritative.                           Misinterpretation.

Barriers to written communication .
Level of written material.
Quality of information.

2) Verbal Communication:
Instructions, interviews, meetings, lectures.
Advantages              Disadvantages
Direct.                      No record.
Two way.                  No reference.
Quick.                      Unstructured.
Instant feedback.      Inconsistent message.
Easy to do.                Too much for memory.

Flexible.                    Limited audience.

Barriers to verbal communication .
Hearing or speech defects.
Language – jargon.
Lack of knowledge.
Duration – speed.

3) Visual.
Video, computer, posters, visual aids.

Advantages                         Disadvantages
Consistent message.            Boring.
Large groups.                      Too much for memory.

Barriers to verbal communication .
Knowledge of personnel.

Communication within an organisation
Team briefings.
Tool box talks.
Policy, procedures.
Safety and health reports.

Health and safety notice boards.
Information should include:
Information for employees regulation poster.
Health and safety policy.
Evacuation procedures.
First aid arrangements.
Contact details for safety representatives.
Targets for accident reduction.

Maximize effectiveness of health and safety notice board:
Locate in a prominent area.
Dedicated to health and safety only.
Information displayed is relevant and current.
Information in a neat orderly state.
Make boards eye-catching through colour and graphics.

Thanks for read this article and  please comment Your suggestions .. See you on part-03  .. Make an Incident free workplace .for Part-01 please click here -->



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