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Easy way to remember NEBOSH IGC-1 (part-01)

Welfare = Looking after the basic needs of people.

Environment = The surroundings in which the organization operates including
land, air, water, natural resources, fauna, flora and humans and their inter-relationships.

Occupational Health = The protection of the bodies and minds of people from illness resulting from materials, processes or procedures used in the workplace.
Exposure to hazardous chemicals
Exposure to asbestos, dusts
Repetitive strain injury

Ill Health:
Acute = Short-term exposure with immediate effect, usually reversible.
Chronic = Long-term or repeated exposure with delayed effect, often

Safety = The protection of people from physical injury:
Slips, trips, falls
Falls from height
Struck by vehicles
Contact with electricity

Accident = An unwanted, unforeseen, unplanned event which results in loss.

Incident/Near miss = An unwanted, unforeseen, unplanned event with the
potential to result in loss.

Dangerous occurrence = A near miss with the potential to cause serious injury.

Hazard = Something with the potential to cause harm.

Risk = The likelihood that harm will occur and the severity of the harm.

Safety Culture = The product of individual and group values, attitudes,
competencies and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment
to and proficiency of an organisation’s Health and Safety.

Immediate or direct cause of an accident = The unsafe act or condition that
caused the accident.

Underlying cause of the Accident = This is the human factors that caused the
accident e.g. inadequate training, high workload, poor employee selection.

The root or underlying cause of an accident = The failure of management
systems and procedures that allowed an unsafe act or condition to occur
e.g. poor risk assessment procedure, lack of supervision, no defect reporting system.

Unsafe Acts = the things people that can result in accidents causing injury and damage to equipment.

Unsafe Conditions = Conditions that are liable to lead to an accident.

Benefits of Good Health and Safety Practice:
Increased levels of compliance.
Improved production.
Improved staff morale.
Improved company reputation.
Reduced accidents.
Reduced ill health.
Reduced damage to equipment.
Reduced staff complaints.
Reduced staff turnover.
Reduced insurance premiums.
Reduced fines and compensation payouts

Reasons for Good Health and Safety Practice:
1. Moral
Injuries cause pain and suffering.
People should not be exposed to harm.
Moral obligation and duty of care to ourselves and others.

Employer’s responsibilities:
The employer must provide:
Safe environment.
Safe buildings.
Safe plant and equipment.
Safe systems of work.
Competent staff.
Adequate supervision.
Adequate instructions.

Worker’s responsibilities:
To protect themselves and those around them.
Co-operate with their employer.
Report any situation that presents a significant danger.
To receive adequate information, instruction and training.
The worker (or representative) should be consulted by their employer
on all aspects of health and safety.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)
Promote human and labour rights, freedom and equity, based on
decent treatment of people.
Responsible for drawing up international labour standards in the form
Conventions – e.g. C187 – Promotional Framework for Occupational
Safety and Health Convention, 2006.
Recommendations – e.g. R197 – Promotional Framework for
Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, 2006.

Purposes of law:
Control anti social behavior.
Regulate relationships.
Resolution of conflict.
Setting standards of behavior.

Law is implemented in 2 ways:
Prescriptive – specific technical requirement - (American)
Goal Setting – Set minimum standards - (European)

Enforcement Agencies – have the power to:
Enter the premises.
Take a police constable or authorized person with them if there is an
obstruction to the execution of his duty.
Examine and investigate.
Direct that premises or area remain undisturbed.
Take photographs and measurements.
Sample or retain articles or substances.
Order testing, dismantling and examination.
Take possession of items.
Require answers to questions.
Inspect documents.
Order medical examinations.

Enforcement of health and safety:
Informal notice:
Verbal Advice and Written Advice – no action.
Formal Notice:
Issuing legal mandates to comply with the law.
Issuing legal mandates to stop dangerous activities.
Issuing a caution (warning).
Prosecution with the intent of punishing the company or individual.
Legal System
Civil Law:
The aim is to compensate an injured party for loss suffered.
There are 2 types of civil liability:
a) Fault liability

b) No fault liability
Fault liability: Injured party must prove that:
There was a duty of care owed.
Duty of care owed was breached.
The breach caused the loss/injury/ill health/death.
No Fault liability: The injured party does not have to prove that the
employer was negligent.

Criminal Law:
The aim is to punish and deter individuals and organizations from
behaving in a way that is unacceptable to society.
Punishment of organizations - usually a fine or restriction of activities.
Punishment for individuals - could be jail, fine, restriction of offices held
or all of the above.


Direct costs
Lost time of injured worker and any continued payments to worker or
Damage to equipment, tools, property, plant or materials.
Medical or first aid costs.
Time and materials to clean up after the accident.

Indirect costs (hidden costs of accidents)
Lost time by other workers (curiosity, sympathy morale)
Lost time – assisting, investigating, arranging for new staff, preparing
Failure to fill customers’ orders on time.

Hidden Costs of Accidents:
Accident investigation.
Payments to injured person.
Payments for non-productive time.
Replacement labour.
Training for replacement labour.
Business interruption.
Loss of reputation.
Repair or replacement of damaged plant.
Legal fees.
Uninsured costs (8-36 times greater than insured costs)
Employer’s liability insurance
To protect and compensate workers who have suffered personal loss due
to the fault of the employer.
Practicable: - If it can be done it must be done.
Does not take into account costs/difficulty or inconvenience.
Reasonably practicable:
If the cost of the remedy is disproportionate to the benefit.

Sources of Information
Internal Sources:
Risk assessments.
Inspection reports.
Accident/incident records.
Medical reports.
Safety representatives.
Safety committee reports.
Company safety policy.
Maintenance reports.

External Sources:
Government organizations –Enforcing Authorities
Professional institutions – IOSH
World Health Organisation – ILO
Suppliers and manufacturers.

Safety Management Systems:
HSG 65 – Successful Health and Safety Management
ILO-OSH 2001 – Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management
Systems (ILO)
OHSAS 18001 – Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (BSI)
most popular
Other Management Systems:
ISO 9001 – Quality Management System
ISO 14001 – Environmental Management System

Sets out Health and Safety aims and objectives of the organisation and
Management commitment.
Safety policy should be signed by the most senior person in the
organisation because:
It shows management commitment.
It gives the policy authority.
The person who signed it has ultimate responsibility

Organisation: 5Cs
Clear roles and responsibilities.
Competence. KATE
Commitment & Control. (policies, procedures)
Consultation leads to Co-operation.
Communication. (Should flow in all directions)

Planning and Implementation:
Generate SMART objectives.
Identify hazards, assess risks and decide how risks can be eliminated or
Set standards against which performance can be measured.

Measuring Performance
Used as a means of determining the extent to which health and safety
policy and objectives are being implemented. It should be both:
Proactive. – Done before an accident happens
Reactive. – Done after an accident happens.

Analysing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance
is adequate.

Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organisation’s
management systems and procedures.
ILO-OSH, 2001 (ILO)
All occupational safety systems have the following 5 elements for
promoting continuous improvement:
1 Policy
2 Organising
3 Planning and Implementation
4 Evaluation
5 Action for improvement

Successful Health and Safety Management can be achieved in the
following 5 steps:

Step 1 – Policy
Sets out Health and Safety aims and objectives of the organisation and
Management commitment.
Aims and objectives:
Protect people from injury and ill-health. (MORAL)
Comply with legal requirements and avoid prosecution. (LEGAL)
Manage Health and Safety on a cost-effective basis. (FINANCIAL)
Safety policy contains 3 elements:
1 Statement of intent (WHAT).- Sets out Health and Safety aims and
objectives of the organisation and Management commitment
The general policy should be signed by the most senior person in the
organisation to:
Show management commitment.
Gives the policy authority.
The person who signs it has ultimate authority.
2 Organisation (WHO). Sets out clear roles and responsibilities of
everybody in the organisation.
3 Arrangements (HOW). – Sets out in detail how the requirements of
the policy will be met This will include procedures and arrangements
for planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review. The
procedures might include:
Risk assessments.
COSHH assessments – Control of substances hazardous to health.
Safe systems of work.
Permits to work.
Working at height.
Confined spaces.
Manual handling.
Policies and procedures – Fire, First aid, etc.
Training programmes.
Maintenance of plant and equipment.
Storage, transportation, handling.
Radiation, dust, noise, fumes.
PPE personal protective equipment.

Step 2 - Organising
Sets out clear roles and responsibilities.
Directors and senior managers – setting policy and objectives.
Line managers – Implementing policy in their in their department.
Supervisors – Checking compliance with the policy.
Safety advisors – Advising organisation on accident and safety
Employees – Responsibility for their own and other’s safety.
Fire Marshals – Ensure evacuation of building and roll-call.
First Aiders – Provide first aid.
Successful organising is achieved by 4 elements:
1 Competence. – From recruitment through to staff transfers and
training. - KATE
2 Commitment and Control. – Policies, procedures, auditing,
supervision and management involvement. Allocating responsibilities
accountabilities, instruction, supervision to achieve control of H&S.
3 Consultation and Cooperation. - Consultation demonstrates
commitment which leads to cooperation - internally between
individuals, groups, departments, including consultation with H&S
reps and externally between client’s suppliers and contractors.
4 Communication. – Needs to flow in all directions. Verbal, written,

visible, example

Step 3 – Planning and Implementing
Identify hazards, assess risks and decide how risks can be eliminated or
controlled. Set standards against which performance can be measured.
1 Generate a SMART objectives (Specific, measurable, achievable,
realistic, time related).
2 Identify hazards, assess risks and establish priorities according to risk.
3 Set performance standards.
4 Plans for non-routine, new work and serious risks.
5 Monitoring arrangements to ensure the standards are met.

Step 4 – Evaluation
A means of determining the extent to which H and S policy and objectives
are being implemented and should be both reactive and proactive.
Directors and managers may not be aware of what is happening.
Monitoring needs to be proactive and reactive.
Monitoring systems should be introduced in each department.
Review – Analyzing data gathered through monitoring to see whether
performance is adequate.
Audit – Systematic, critical examination of each stage of an organization’s
management systems and procedures.

Step 5 – Action for Improvement
Establishing a preventive and corrective action results from performance
monitoring, audits, and reviews
Establish and maintained continual improvement of the relevant

elements of safety management system

The safety policy should be reviewed/revised
Accidents or incidents.
Changes in:
Work patterns.
Risk assessments.
Enforcement action.
Compensation claims.
Policy review.
Professional advice.

Communicating the policy
Employers must bring the policy to the employee’s attention by:
Displaying it on the notice board.
Introducing it on induction and subsequent training.
Considering it at and tool box talks.
Using newsletters.
Inserts in wage slips.
Using posters.
Build it into safe systems of work and codes of practice.
Managers to discuss with the workforce.

Important because:
They give evidence of management commitment.
They motivate staff by giving them something to aim for.

Health and Safety Targets
SMART Objectives – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic,
Reduce/zero accidents.
Zero prosecutions.
Reduce absence through sickness by 10%.
Reduce compensation claims by 20%.
Improve reporting of near misses by 25%.
Improve reporting of minor accidents by 15%.
Increase the numbers trained in health and safety by 12%.
Improve audit scores by 5%.

Please comment how is this post and how to improve coming part -2  post


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